Mandaluyong City remains predominantly residential, characterized by all types of housing structures such as single-detached, semi-detached, row houses or medium-density dwelling, multi-storey low cost housing and open-market housing, with makeshift structures (barong-barong) and spreading mansions at the extremes. Such conditions are made possible by the presence of blighted (Map 50) areas and first class subdivisions (Map 51).
Evidently, housing tenures are a mixture of ownerships, temporary (as in caretaker), rentals and informal or illegal occupancy which at present affects 22,641 families scattered in 14 barangays in the city (Table 5.18a & Table 5.18b). A considerable number of households totaling 3,806 are categorized as doubled-up, with two (2) or more households occupying a single dwelling unit. In fact, in year 2000 there are at least 1,468 cases of two (2) to six (6) households doubled-up in single housing structures alone, not to mention other types of residential structures in the city (Table 5.19).
Local Government Initiatives
Although NSO Census 2000 shows a decrease in local population as compared to Census 1995, there remains the need for more housing units to address housing backlogs and replace structures in conditions no longer acceptable as dwelling units.
As surveyed in 2000, over 1500 structures are built with unsafe and improvised materials for both outerwalls and roofing. Table 5.20 (Occupied Housing Unit by Type of Construction Material of Roof and Outerwalls). This is aggravated by a large number of structures built though with strong materials like concrete walls and galvanized iron roofings but are situated within blighted areas.
As a response, the city government took the initiative of developing the following housing programs: (see also Map 52).
Home for the Homeless Program
To address the situation as described, the local government ventured into the construction industry in the production of low-cost medium rise housing units. This approach of vertical development was deemed more practical in areas densely populated but with insufficient space for single-detached or even semi-detached structures. During the last decade, a total of 1359 socialized housing units had been awarded to qualified beneficiaries with monthly amortization averaging at P 2,658.00 payable in 10 and 25 years term.
Within a span of five years from 1998 to 2002, 14 medium-rise buildings were erected over a land area of 8,733.0-0 sq. m., benefiting 576 families. Total cost of investments inclusive of costs of construction and lot acquisition reached P 269,647,253.03 with an ROI of 11.80% by December 2002 or a total of P 31,811,510.20 paid amortization.
Land for the Landless Program
Where available spaces allow for on-site development, eligible occupants were given opportunity to acquire their respective spots through different modes of acquisition depending on location and existing ownership of the property in consideration. For instance, a total of 62,087 sq.m. of privately owned properties spread across 13 barangays was acquired through local government funding and distributed to 1414 beneficiaries payable through monthly amortization with terms of payment ranging from 5 to 20 years. By December 2012, a total of P 17,656,751.21 monthly amortization was collected, representing 20.94% of the total investment of P 84,316,004.00.
Another mode of acquisition is through the so-called Community Mortgage Program (CMP) wherein the National Home Mortgage Finance Corporation (NHMFC) pays the landowner on behalf of the tenants association with the local government acting as intermediary. The land is subdivided and distributed to the tenants who pay the monthly amortization directly to the NHMFC. A total of 67,340 sq.m. of land was acquired through the CMP benefiting 1,601 families in 5 barangays.
In the case of the PNR property covering a land area of 95,383.30 sq.m. and stretching from Gen. Kalentong St. in Brgy. Harapin Ang Bukas to Brgy. Barangka Ilaya along the Pasig River shoreline, what used to be a railroad track had been transformed into a densely populated residential area. Again, with the LGU acting as intermediary, settlements were made wherein each tenant household pays amortization directly to the PNR Management, with the LGU as collection agent. A total of 1,863 families benefited from this arrangement. However, this arrangement had been modified at a time when the total balance of payments for the land become manageable enough for the LGU to pay in full. This new arrangement has been a lot favorable to the paying public as their payments are now made to the LGU.
With the sincere intention of providing housing adaptable to a variety of clients/beneficiaries with consideration to their social and economic conditions, the city government is adopting concepts of housing development other than the traditional methods of building standardized housing units with long term amortizations and ready for occupancy upon distribution. Noteworthy are the following accomplished and proposed projects:
A. Rowhouses built through the “Adopt-a-Home Program”.
KGB. This project is located at the Kapalaran-Guinhawa-Busilak area in Barangka Drive, particularly implemented for victims of the fire that razed the area sometime in 1999. It was made possible through a combination of the following: (a) “Sweat Equity” or the free-labor concept patterned after the Habitat Shelter Program of former U.S. President Jimmy Carter, (b) private sector participation through donations of construction materials, and (c) government subsidy on other development incurred expenditures.
Block 37. The Block 37 experience in Welfareville Compound is another manifestation that the “Adopt-a-Home Program” works in Mandaluyong. A total of 230 families were affected when fire razed down their houses in April 2000. Today, the Block 37 community is a picture of a well-planned socialized housing development complete with infrastructure support and utilities like electricity and water supply.
B. Development of 10-12 storey socialized housing
Cognizant of the scarcity in land supply vis-à-vis the need to generate a large number of housing units, the city government is looking into the possibility of constructing 10-12 storeys of socialized housing particularly in the Welfareville area. This, however, would entail a more comprehensive cost-benefit analysis and further researches for applicable development and construction strategies to considerably lessen the project cost common to high rise structures considering that the target beneficiaries who will eventually pay for the cost of the project are the under privileged and the marginalized sector of the city.
Some of the difficulties encountered in starting the program are the identification of beneficiaries and their lack of initiative to abide by the procedures and rulings of the program.
It is important to note that the local housing program also extends to government employees, victims of calamities, and those affected by other government projects (Table 5.21). Those who cannot avail of this program have the option to avail of the national government’s housing program which costs much less but located elsewhere outside Metro Manila. Others who are not eligible for in-city housing program were provided reasonable resettlement package in other local government units with special ties to Mandaluyong City.
There are a total of 298 households who were transferred to Kasiglahan Village in Trece Martirez, Cavite in the light of the Pasig River rehabilitation program which included clearing of embankments and reinforcement of easements. This move affected said number of informal settlers who were relocated to Cavite and provided with adequate housing facilities and livelihood programs. This project was facilitated by the National Housing Authority and the Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission (Table 5.22).
Considering the 1997 data on household income where 19.4%3 is spent monthly on shelter, a large majority of the households cannot afford such monthly rentals, much less purchase a house at this time. As a consequence, families with close relations opted to double-up or share units, while the number of informal settlers continuously increase from 14,611 families in 1993 to 22,641 families at present.
|Affected Area||No. of Families affected|
|Mabini J. Rizal||43|
Private Sector Contribution
The private sector has also been actively taking part in the housing industry as manifested by the boom in the development and production of subdivisions and open market housing (Map 52) within the last five years. For instance, the private sector has produced around 396 new units in the form of town houses and multi-storey condominiums. Very noticeable among the latest investments in the residential condominiums are multi-billion peso projects like the California Garden Square and the Gateway Residences in Brgy. Highway Hills and Brgy. Barangka Ilaya, respectively. (see Major Development Projects, Part 4 Economy).
Current prices for condominium units vary from P 15,000.00 monthly rental for a 60.00 sq.m. condominium unit to a selling price of P 3m and above for an 80-120 sq.m. unit.
For single-detached and semi-detached structures, the average price of houses in Mandaluyong City based on the publications in housing market was P6,400,000 three years ago. The median price of dwelling units, often computed as 70% of the average price, was P4,480,0004. Median annual rent, on the other hand, is P173,880 or P14,490 per month. This recent year, however, no data is available.